Glossary

Bioinformatics  Bioinformatics is the application of computer science and information technology to the field of biology and medicine. 
Biostatistics  Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. 
CpG SitesCpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide occurs next to a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its length. "CpG" is shorthand for "—C—phosphate—G—", that is, cytosine and guanine separated by only one phosphate; phosphate links any two nucleosides together in DNA. The "CpG" notation is used to distinguish this linear sequence from the CG base-pairing of cytosine and guanine.
DNADeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid containing the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms (with the exception of RNA viruses). The DNA segments carrying this genetic information are called genes. 
Empirical Bayes Methods Empirical Bayes Methods are procedures for statistical inference in which the prior distribution is estimated from the data. This approach stands in contrast to standard Bayesian methods, for which the prior distribution is fixed before any data are observed. Despite this difference in perspective, empirical Bayes may be viewed as an approximation to a fully Bayesian treatment of a hierarchical model wherein the parameters at the highest level of the hierarchy are set to their most likely values, instead of being integrated out.
EpidemiologyThe branch of medicine that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases.
EpigeneticsEpigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.
Epigenome  An Epigenome consists of a record of the chemical changes to the DNA and histone proteins of an organism.
GenomeThe genome is the entirety of an organism's hereditary information. It is encoded either in DNA or, for many types of virus, in RNA. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA/RNA.
GWA StudyA genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an examination of many common genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait. GWA studies typically focus on associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and traits like major diseases (e.g. diabetes).
Incident T2DType 2 Diabetes that is likely to occur.
MethylationMethylation denotes the addition of a methyl group to a substrate or the substitution of an atom or group by a methyl group. Methylation is a form of alkylation with a methyl group, rather than a larger carbon chain, replacing a hydrogen atom.
MiscallAssign an incorrect name to.
Null HypothesisThe practice of science involves formulating and testing hypotheses, assertions that are capable of being proven false using a test of observed data. The null hypothesis typically corresponds to a general or default position. For example, the null hypothesis might be that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena or that a potential treatment has no effect.
OutlierIn statistics, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data.
PhenotypeThe physical and biochemical characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of its genetic constitution and the environment
Population GeneticsPopulation genetics is the study of allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four main evolutionary processes: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene flow.
QCQuality control
Quantile NormalizationIn statistics, quantile normalization is a technique for making two distributions identical in statistical properties.
RegressionIn statistics, regression analysis includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. More specifically, regression analysis helps one understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables is varied, while the other independent variables are held fixed.
Replication AssayReplication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated. 
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology, and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence or amount or the functional activity of a target entity (the analyte) which can be a drug or biochemical substance or a cell in an organism or organic sample.
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D)   Type 2 Diabetes occurs when not enough insulin is produced by the body for it to function properly, or when the body’s cells do not react to insulin. This is called insulin resistance.

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